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A Handbook of Bioethics Terms by James B. Tubbs Jr.

By James B. Tubbs Jr.

The time period bioethics was once first utilized in the early Seventies by means of biologists who have been interested in moral implications of genetic and ecological interventions, yet used to be quickly utilized to all elements of biomedical ethics, together with health and wellbeing care supply, study, and public coverage. Its literature attracts from disciplines as diversified as medical drugs and nursing, clinical examine, theology and philosophy, legislations, and the social sciences―each with its personal special vocabulary and expressions.

A instruction manual of Bioethics Terms is a convenient and concise glossary-style reference that includes over four hundred entries at the major phrases, expressions, titles, and complaints which are most vital to the sphere. such a lot entries are cross-referenced, making this guide a worthwhile addition to the bookshelves of undergraduate and graduate scholars in overall healthiness care ethics, physicians and nurses, participants of institutional ethics committees and overview forums, and others attracted to bioethics.

A sampling of phrases from the handbook:

DNR (Do now not Resuscitate)
Gene treatment
Living will
Natural law
Primum non nocere
Single-payer system
Surrogate consent
Schiavo case

Sample Definitions:

Formalism: In moral thought, a kind of deontology within which an motion is judged to be correct whether it is in accord with an ethical rule, and mistaken if it violates an ethical rule.

Xenograft: Organ or tissue transplanted from one person to a different person of one other species. (See Transplantation, organ and tissue)

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Extra resources for A Handbook of Bioethics Terms

Example text

The best-known form of consequentialism is utilitarianism, which holds that one must always act so as to produce the greatest utility—that is, the greatest good and least bad consequences for the maximal number of all those affected. Ethical egoism holds that moral right, wrong, and obligation depend upon the predicted consequences for the individual moral agent alone. Altruism holds that moral right, wrong, and obligation depend upon the predicted consequences for everyone other than the moral agent.

This form of reasoning has been the foundation of Anglo-American common law, in which new cases are adjudicated based on their relevant similarity to previous cases in which a judgment (precedent) has been established. ) In the deontological moral theory of Immanuel Kant, the supreme moral principle from which all duties and obligations can be derived. (See deontology) Categorical imperative: Cell nucleus: See nucleus, cell Chorionic villus sampling (CVS): A prenatal diagnosis technique in which a small sample of tissue (chorionic villi) from the placenta is obtained and analyzed to detect genetic and chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.

Other ethical concerns have been raised about the number of embryos to be transferred in the procedure. While the transfer of multiple embryos increases the prospect that at least one of them will implant in the uterine wall and establish pregnancy, it also increases the risk of multiple pregnancies beyond the number desired by the parents or even beyond the normal uterine capacity for sustaining pregnancy to birth. Embryogenesis: The process of formation and development of the embryo. (See embryonic development) Embryonic development: In human biology, the development of the organism (embryo) from the point of conception or fertilization (the joining of egg and sperm cells to begin a new and genetically unique organism) until the end of the eighth week, at which point the embryo is identified as a fetus.

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