By Karlheinz Spindler

A complete presentation of summary algebra and an in-depth therapy of the functions of algebraic recommendations and the connection of algebra to different disciplines, comparable to quantity concept, combinatorics, geometry, topology, differential equations, and Markov chains.

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Regression analysis helps one understand how the typical value of the dependent variable changes when any one of the independent variables is varied, while the other independent variables are held fixed. S. 1 A summary on the application of regression models in water resources and environmental engineering Field of the study Urban water management Water quality Hydroclimatology Hydroclimatology Groundwater Storm water management Hydrometry Groundwater Hydrology Hydrology Climatology Water quality Reservoir planning Climatology Climatology Hydrology Sediment estimation Researchers Adamowski et al.

2. The strength of the linear relationship between two variables is measured by the simple correlation coefficient. 1) where sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ n 1 X CovðX; Y Þ ¼ ðx À x Þðy À y Þ nÀ1 and n is the number of observations of X and Y values. 2) 52 3 Regression-Based Models a b y y x c x d y y x x Fig. 2 Different types of correlation between Y and X. (a) Positive linear correlation (b) negative linear correlation (c) nonlinear correlation (d) no correlation The correlation coefficient is calculated by the following syntax: R¼corrcoef(X) where X is a n Â m matrix; n is the number of observation; and m is the number of variables.

In many problems, it is preferred to deal with the probability of a group of variables instead of a specific variable. Therefore, another type of probability distribution function is developed based on the integration of the probabilities associated to the values less than or 18 2 Basic Statistics b f(X) F(X) a X X d f(X) F(X) c X X Fig. 2 Examples of discrete pdf (a) and CDF (b) as well as continuous pdf (c) and CDF (d) equal to a specific value of x0. This function is called cumulative distribution function (CDF) (Fig.