By Dorothy Bartlett
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Additional resources for Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry
These bonding forces are weaker than the covalent bonds, but they do have an important influence on the physical and biological properties of a compound. Ionic Bonding Ionic bonding occurs between molecules which have opposite charges and it involves an electrostatic interaction between the two opposite charges, the functional groups that most easily ionise are amines and carboxylic acids: a) + + H R N HH H +H R N : + H –H Ammonium ion Amine b) R + O –H C OH +H Carboxylic acid + R O C – O Carboxylate ion Fig.
X refers to total number of atoms in the ring and Y to the total number of oxygens in the ring. The ability of a crown ether depends to complex a cation : Why the nucleophilic reactions under the reaction conditions give almost same quantitative yields ? , whose ionic radius is best accommodated by the polyether. 80 Å). The crown ether, 18-crown-6 acts as a phase transfer catalyst and gets the anion into the organic phase. On coordination with a metal cation the crown ethers convert the metal ion into a species with a hydrocarbon like exterior.
I i ) Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry 47 A carboxylic acid cannot be directly converted to an acid amide by the action of an amine. Hence the need of a dehydrating agent like DCC. The acid is converted to a compound with a better leaving group. Difference in behaviour of RMgX and R2CuLi: Since the C—to—Mg bond has more ionic character than the C— to—Cu bond, its R group is more like R : – and is much more reactive. A set of reagents is listed under column A and their uses under column B.