By Monica Mesquita, Sal Restivo, Ubiratan D'Ambrosio
THIS paintings EXPLORES THE city stories OF road young children IN SAO PAULO, BRAZIL during the MATHEMATICAL EPISTEMIC REGIMES on the center in their SURVIVAL ideas. WE additionally DRAW recognition TO the placement OF highway youngsters throughout TIME, area, tradition, AND historical past. OUR target IS to acknowledge, comprehend, AND VALIDATE varieties of arithmetic developed AND USED outdoor OF THE verified associations OF MATHEMATICAL creation. WE BASE OUR research ON "THE MATHEMATICAL IMAGINATION", which pulls jointly SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM AND ETHNOMATHEMATICS. THEORETICALLY, WE DRAW seriously at the DURKHEIMIAN culture IN SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY. WE specialize in a kind OF perform THAT hyperlinks THE FORMAL AND THE casual so as to discover the whole strength OF MATHEMATICAL wisdom AS A SOCIAL factor (IN DURKHEIM'S SENSE), A made of THE COLLECTIVE recognition THAT EXPRESSES COLLECTIVE REALITIES AND a class of information found in each tradition. this is often AS precise FOR arithmetic on the MARGINS because it IS for pro arithmetic. OUR paintings CONTRIBUTES TO AN rising POLITICAL MANIFESTO OF THE MARGINAL THAT DEMONSTRATES THE SOCIAL REALITIES AND SOCIAL strength in their arithmetic. THIS publication could be OF curiosity TO SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, scholars OF arithmetic AND ETHNOMATHEMATICS, and everybody drawn to the location OF MARGINALIZED kids.
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Extra resources for Asphalt Children and City Streets: A Life, a City, and a Case Study of History, Culture, and Ethnomathematics in Sao Paulo
Mead expresses this idea in his paradigm of the I, the me, and the generalized other. The nature of concepts reveals their origins as social. To think logically – remembering that its basic material is concepts – is to think impersonally, that is, to think collectively. Because the concept is a collective representation, Durkheim concludes that concepts are the way that society conceives things, that is, conceptual thought is contemporaneous, and refuses to see the society as the product of modern culture.
Following Rousseau, Durkheim conceived of human beings as essentially social beings whose character, values, and very “nature” are dependent on the kind of society in which they live. To argue with individuals and try to work out how, through their characteristics, society can be explained, is very close to arguing that society is the result of adding individuals together - that society is the sum of its individuals. Durkheim maintained a different position, arguing that society is sui generis, an entity in its own right.
Durkheim maintained a different position, arguing that society is sui generis, an entity in its own right. Common sense says that society is not real, only individual people are real and society is just a name for the individuals working together. This is a definition of social atomism5: the belief that society is no more than the sum of its parts. This method of science that theorizes from the individual has been called methodological individualism. Hobbes’ state of nature theory is atomistic and a classic example of methodological individualism.