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Biological anthropology : the natural history of humankind, by Craig B Stanford; John S Allen; Susan C Antón

By Craig B Stanford; John S Allen; Susan C Antón

This textbook provides a survey of actual anthropology, the department of anthropology that reviews the actual improvement of the human species. It performs a big half within the examine of human origins and within the research and id of human is still for criminal reasons. It attracts upon human physique measurements, human genetics, and the examine of human bones and contains the examine of human mind evolution, and of Read more...

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Extra info for Biological anthropology : the natural history of humankind, Edition: 3rd ed

Sample text

Suppose a scientist proposes that the reason that humans walk upright and apes do not is that walking upright uses less energy (in the form of calories burned) per mile of walking, thereby giving early humans who stood up to walk an advantage over their ape ancestors (Rodman & McHenry, 1980). This is the hypothesis. The scientist would then gather evidence—the data—to test this hypothesis. He might compare the caloric output of two-legged and four-legged walking by having a human and a chimpanzee walk on a treadmill while measuring the oxygen consumption of each.

Natural selection Differential reproductive success over multiple generations. In light of Gould’s discovery of bill differences, Darwin realized the importance of the finches for his budding theory. 16). This observation was Darwin’s first insight into biogeography, the distribution of animals and plants on the Earth. Darwin referred to the process of many species emerging from one or few ancient ones, like the spokes of a wheel emerging from the hub, as adaptive radiation. The process of biological change in a species in which adaptive radiation occurs, Darwin referred to as natural selection.

The practice of ethnology is called ethnography (literally, “the describing of culture”). The study of the way in which foraging people track down their prey is ethnography. So is a written account of the initiation rituals of street gangs in Los Angeles. And so is the study of how parents in Boston care for their children relative to parenting among the Sherpas of highland Nepal. The common thread that runs through all these studies is that they seek to understand the workings of another culture by comparing it with the culture of the investigator.

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