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Broadband Telecommunications

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Although this was more expensive (depending on the number of calls) than FX, an advantage of RCF is that you can receive multiple calls at a time. It soon became apparent to people working in the Phoenix location that they could call their uncle in Kent by first asking the company operator (later by dialing) for the TIE line to Chicago. They would then choose the TIE line to Seattle and finally dial across the FX line to Kent. The PBX, although not smart, did allow a person to dial up the TIE and FX lines.

An L2TP tunnel is created by encapsulating an L2TP frame inside a UDP packet, which in turn is encapsulated inside an IP packet, whose source and destination addresses define the tunnel's ends. Because the outer encapsulating protocol is IP, clearly IPSec protocols can be applied to this composite IP packet, thus protecting the data that flows within the L2TP tunnel. Authentication Header (AH), Encapsulated Security Payload (ESP), and Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) can all be applied in a straightforward way.

Much has been made lately of the fact that by using thousands of computers, a DES−encoded message could be broken in 39 days. Keep in mind that this is for one key. If we change keys, it would take the crackers and hackers another 39 days. Are they (hackers and competitors) motivated to do this? The method mentioned previously used the brute force attack of guessing keys. Changing keys often means that the attackers must start all over again. The other encryption standard (not widely supported) is International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), which uses 128−bit keys.

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