By Mohammad R. K. Mofrad, Roger D. Kamm
This e-book offers an entire spectrum of perspectives on present techniques to modeling phone mechanics. The authors of this ebook come from the biophysics, bioengineering, and actual chemistry groups and every joins the dialogue with a special viewpoint on organic platforms. therefore, the techniques variety from finite point tools common in continuum mechanics to versions of the cytoskeleton as a cross-linked polymer community to types of glassy fabrics and gels. reviews mirror either the static, prompt nature of the constitution, in addition to its dynamic nature as a result of polymerization and the total array of organic approaches. whereas it really is not likely unmarried unifying process will evolve from this range, it truly is our wish larger appreciation of a number of the views will bring about a hugely coordinated method of exploring the basic difficulties and higher discussions between investigators with differing perspectives.
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Extra info for Cytoskeletal Mechanics: Models and Measurements in Cell Mechanics (Cambridge Texts in Biomedical Engineering)
2002). Methods to measure intracellular rheology by macrorheology, diffusion, and sedimentation The experimental designs to measure cytoplasmic (micro)rheology have to overcome three major challenges: the small size of the cell; the heterogeneous structure of the cell interior; and the active remodeling of the cytoplasm that occurs both constitutively, 19 P1: JZZ 0521846374c02 CUFX003/Kamm 20 0 521 84637 0 June 23, 2006 8:51 P. Janmey and C. Schmidt as part of the resting metabolic state, and directly, in response to the application of forces necessary to perform the rheologic measurement.
29 P1: JZZ 0521846374c02 CUFX003/Kamm 30 0 521 84637 0 June 23, 2006 8:51 P. Janmey and C. Schmidt Fig. 2-8. Schematic diagram of an optical trap. Optical traps Optical traps (see Fig. 2-8) use a laser beam focused through a high-numerical aperture microscope objective lens to three-dimensionally trap micron-sized refractile particles, usually silica or latex beads (Ashkin, 1997; Svoboda and Block, 1994). The force acting on the bead at a certain distance from the laser focus is in general very difficult to calculate because (1) a high-NA laser focus is not well approximated by a Gaussian, and (2) a micron-sized refractive particle will substantially affect the light field.
2003b). The possibility to observe thermal fluctuations instead of actively applying force or torque in principle exists for all the techniques using P1: JZZ 0521846374c02 CUFX003/Kamm 0 521 84637 0 June 23, 2006 8:51 Experimental measurements of intracellular mechanics 37 microscopic probes described above. , 1997). Passive microrheology has been used to probe, on microscopic scales, the material properties of systems ranging from simple polymer solutions to the interior of living cells. Optically detected individual probes The simplest method in terms of instrumentation uses video microscopy to record the Brownian motion of the embedded particles.